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Templo y Torre de Santa Catalina Mártir

Codi
46.15.250-084
Denominació
Templo y Torre de Santa Catalina Mártir
Municipi
VALÈNCIA
Comarca
VALÈNCIA
Província
València
Localització
Plaza Lope de Vega
Època
S.XIII; S.XIV; S.XVI; S.XVII; S.XVIII; S.XX
Ús primitiu
Religioso
Ús actual
Religioso
Estil
Gótico - Barroco
Tipologia
Edificis - Edificis religiosos - Esglèsies
Foto InmuebleFoto InmuebleFoto Inmueble
Secció
Primera
Clasificació
Bienes inmuebles 1ª
Categoria
Monument
Estat
Declaració singular
Modalitat
BIC VALENCIA
Anotació Ministeri
R-I-51-0004484
Data disposició
27/03/81
Data publicació BOE
06/06/81
Tipus de delimitació
Delimitado - Delimitación Definitiva - Planeamiento Especial Aprobado Veure delimitació al mapa
Publicacions DOGV
Resolució entorn de protecció

Planes

Nom Informe Fecha informe Fecha publicación BOP
Catálogo de bienes y espacios protegidos. Plan General Ordenación Urbana. Homologación. Favorable24/11/14
PEP 06-07 Entornos de los BICS Zona Central de Ciutat Vella Favorable08/01/1603/08/16

En el centro de la ciudad, junto a la Plaza Redonda y la plaza de la Reina, cercana a la catedral se encuentra este templo que dejo de ser parroquia en 1902.
Su construcción se inició tras la reconquista aprovechándose el solar que ocupaba una mezquita. En 1300 se consagró la iglesia en honor a la Santa Catalina, infanta de la realeza aragonesa. Según parece era un templo de una sola nave con capillas entre contrafuertes, con cabecera poligonal y campanario cúbico a los pies. En el siglo XIV se amplió, encargando la obra el gremio de Tapineros; de este momento es la cabecera, con deambulatorio y capillas radiales pareadas, siguiendo el esquema de la catedral. El resto de la fábrica no se hizo de nueva planta. Debido a ello la unión del primer tramo de la nave con el deambulatorio es abocinado, también los contrafuertes de las capillas laterales fueron vaciados para conformar las naves laterales provocando problemas estructurales. La nave lateral del lado de la Epístola es la única que fue llevada a cabo, ya que los capiteles de la misma son más evolucionados que en la nave central, en el lado del Evangelio solo se realizaron en aquel momento los dos tramos más próximos a la cabecera.
En 1536 se consagra el templo tras la reparación de las bóvedas de la cabecera, y la consagración de la capilla de la Virgen de la Paz, en 1525, tras la renovación de la misma. Según datos documentales era de estilo renacentista, con paramentos pintados al fresco realizados por Jordi Olivier.
El 24 de marzo de 1584, se provocó un incendio que destruyó las capillas y ennegreció el edifico. Esto llevó al encargo del retablo mayor a Francisco Ribalta, participando Joan Munyos en la talla de la imagen de la titular, y Sebastiano Zaydia en el dorado y pintura de las columnas del retablo. Este retablo fue desmantelado en el siglo XVIII. La cabecera es también reparada tras el incendio, se cerraron los arcos que daban acceso a las capillas y se instaló el órgano, como se realizaría posteriormente en la catedral (1671-1688). Se realizó el trasagrario con capilla inferior rehundida.
Entre 1608 y 1705 se levantó el campanario barroco por Juan Bautista Viñes, su nombre aparece en la inscripción de la lápida que se encuentra en el primer cuerpo. Se desconoce el tracista, aunque parece ser Juan Pérez Castiel por el tratamiento compositivo de las ventanas que nos remite a obras del mismo. En 1729 se instalaron las campanas realizadas en Londres por Richard Phelps.
A mediados del siglo XVIII, en 1742, se realiza la renovación interior barroca, con semicolumnas corintias y un entablamento corrido decorado con trofeos de la iglesia como la Iglesia de San Martín, con influencia de la portada barroca de la catedral. Al exterior se realizó la Puerta de la Tapinería con una gran severidad, de orden toscano.
Una nueva renovación académica fue realizada en el último tercio del siglo XVIII. En 1785 se realizó la portada actual de la plaza de Lope de Vega, se redecora el presbiterio y se sustituye el retablo mayor por uno corintio con pinturas de Camarón. La sacristía es también renovada en este momento.
En 1936 un incendio destruyó el presbiterio y daño la estructura y la decoración interior.
Entre 1950 y 1961 Luis Gay Ramos, de la Dirección General de Regiones Desbastadas, consolidó y repristinó el templo dándole una mayor relevancia a la impronta gótica. Así la restauración se realizó en tres etapas: la primera entre 1952-1954 en la que se eliminó la decoración barroca; 1954-1955 se consolidó la estructura portante; 1955-1960 se sanearon las bóvedas, se construyó la fachada interior, y se pavimento el templo.
La iglesia es de planta longitudinal con tres naves con girola y capillas entre contrafuertes al igual que la catedral. En la girola, rodeando el altar mayor, hay un número par de capillas radiales, encontrándose en una de ellas la capilla de la Comunión de planta de cruz griega y estilo clasicista en la que se venera a la Virgen de los Desamparados.
Destaca la torre campanario, de planta hexagonal dividida en seis cuerpos; los cinco primeros pisos se separan mediante molduraciones horizontales, destacan los resaltes angulares a modo de pilastras y las molduraciones de las ventanas. En el último piso los resaltes angulares son columnas salomónicas. La torre remata con un templete con cupulín que enlaza con volutas con el cuerpo inferior. Esta situada a la derecha de la cabecera, y configura un hito urbanístico debido a las modificaciones urbanísticas llevadas a cabo en el siglo XIX, ya que frente a ella se abrió la calle de la Paz.
Junto a la torre se encuentra uno de los tres accesos del templo. Recae a la plaza de Santa Catalina, se trata de una puerta ojival que da paso a la cabecera. A los pies de la iglesia se sitúa la fachada principal rematada en la parte superior con una sencilla moldura. En la parte baja se abre la portada adintelada coronada por un frontón curvo partido sustentado por unas ménsulas. En la parte central del frontón está el escudo timbrado de la Corona Real con el instrumento del martirio de la titular que es una rueda. En el entablamento encontramos una inscripción que hace referencia a Santa Catalina. Sobre la portada se abre un rosetón repristinado en tracería lobulada, junto a él uno de menores dimensiones y más bajo que en la actualidad está cegado. A la izquierda de la fachada en la parte baja hay un panel cerámico de azulejos del siglo XIX; sobre él, en la parte superior se encuentran las argollas en las que se colocaba la bandera del Tribunal de la Almotacén, cuando este se celebraba. A la derecha de la fachada hay unos arcos ojivales cegados, que parecen ser arquisolios funerarios, y no la sede del Tribunal del Almotacén, debido a que este estuvo situado hasta 1594 a espaldas de la capilla de la Virgen de la Paz, cuyo espacio fue ocupado por la sacristía, demoliéndose la capilla en 1741.
En la actualidad el templo tiene una impronta gótica en armonía con la torre barroca. Esta última sobresale por ser un hito urbanístico y ser uno de los campanarios barrocos valencianos más destacables.

Fotos

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